cultural and artisticHeritage and Tourism

Sabzevar, a city that changed the course of Iranian history


According to the original texts, Sabzevar was a part of the twelve parts of Beyhaq during the Taherian period and Beyhaq was one of the four parts of Greater Khorasan from the functions of Neishabour and Neishabour. In the name of Sabzevar, it is stated that Sabzevar was originally “Sasuyeh Abad” and it is said that Ibn Sasuyeh was “Yazd Khosrow” who built Khosrowshir Joven Khosrow Abad Beyhaq and Khosrojard. People wrote this as “Sabzvar” and said “Sabzevar”.

In the valuable book “History of Ancient Iran”, the late Hassan Pirnia included Joven and Sabzevar as part of the “Parthian” territory, which was part of their special land before the formation of the “Parthian” government by the Parthians. Archaeological evidence studied in this city confirms the importance of the region to the extent of being able to afford one of the four great fire temples of Iran, and it is the remains of a four stone arch in the mountains of Rivand Sabzevar, which is considered the fire temple “Azar Barzin Mehr”.

Sabzevar became historic with its uprising and resistance against the Mongol ilkhans, and at the end of 736 AH (eighth century AD) they formed the uprising of the Sarbadars. The Sarbadars cut off the Ilkhans from Sabzevar and ruled not only Sabzevar but most of Khorasan for more than fifty years.

Historical footprints in Sabzevar

Signs of longevity and glory of the culture and civilization of Sabzevar city are the works and buildings of numerous and diverse ancient sites that are left throughout the city and each expresses the religious and cultural values ​​of this region.

The oldest ancient sites of Sabzevar, which show the remains of large and prestigious settlements, have a history of three to six thousand years. From the historical period until now, at least one architectural complex belonging to the Sassanids has been left in Rivand, Sabzevar. But the golden age of the flourishing of the culture and civilization of the region was the early centuries of Islam until the end of the eighth century AH, the works and signs of that period have been identified in the vast area of ​​Sabzevar, which provide knowledge of Sabzevar’s high position in Iranian culture and civilization.

It takes several weeks to see all the historical monuments of Sabzevar, but the most important historical monuments that welcome visitors and tourists include the four arches (fire temple) of Rivand, Pamanar Mosque, Sabzevar Mosque, Sabzevar Glaciers, Mill Khosrowgerd and others.

Four arches (fire temple) of Rivand

This fire temple is popularly known as the House of Dionysus and includes a quadrangle with a height of more than seven meters and its extensions. The entrance of the building is connected to the dome from the east side. In the four corners of the building, elephants similar to Sarvestan Palace and Qasr Shirin have been created to place the dome on the square base. According to some archaeologists, this building was one of the most important fire temples of the Sassanid era called Azarbarzin Mehr belonged to the farmers.

Pamanar Mosque

Today, this mosque with an approximate area of ​​350 square meters includes a columned nave in the south side. According to the history of Bayhaq, this building was rebuilt in 317 AH by Amir Abolfazl Ziari in 420 AH by Khajeh Amirak Dabir for a minaret 17 meters high. The decorative elements of this mosque include tiling, brickwork of brick inscriptions.

Sabzevar prayer hall

Sabzevar prayer hall was a place for Muslims to hold Friday prayers and festivals during the Sarbdarieh period. The architecture of this building consists of a large porch and a quadrangle at the end. There are semi-cylinders on both sides of the porch, the function of which is to prevent the wall of this part from slipping, and the middle space also has a tall dome that is covered by dormant bricks.

Sabzevar Grand Mosque

This historical building with an approximate area of ​​four thousand square meters, includes a south porch, courtyard, porch nave. Above the altar of the south porch is an inscription dated 1292 AH and above the porch there are two brick minarets. Also, around this part of the mosque, a nave with a high multiplicative arch style has been added to it at the same time as the construction of the south porch. Among the decorative elements of this building, we can mention seven-color and brick tiles.

Sabzevar refrigerators

Sabzevar in the Qajar period had several sets of glaciers, of which today 9 glaciers are scattered in this city, these glaciers in terms of structure, including the pit or chamber of the glacier and a conical dome.

Mil Khosrowgard

According to the existing inscription of Khosrow Gard, it was built in 505 AH. This building, along the road from Neishabour to Rey, has also served as a guide for travelers and caravans, and among its decorative elements, we can mention masonry and molded bricks in various shapes.

Sarai Memarzadeh

This house is one of the 11 old houses in the city of Sabzevar, which is located in Asrar Square. This building dates back to the Qajar period and this place in that period and even the first Pahlavi period was the most important center of trade and exchange of Iranian and Armenian goods in Sabzevar. The plan of this building is one of the common plans of the house and one of the prominent features of this house is having two porches along the entrances of the building and the justice workshop of the building. This monument has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran under number 9564.

Faramarz Khan Caravanserai (Center)

Faramarz Khan Caravanserai is a four-porch building that according to the endowment in 1291 AH by “Haj Faramarz Khan, Brigadier General of Sabzevari” for the departure of caravans and pilgrims of Hazrat Reza (AS) along the Khorasan highway, important parts of the architecture of this building can be He pointed to the vestibule and its upper space, the porches, the pavilions overlooking the courtyard and the stables, and that the port dock and the eastern dormitory had been turned into an anthropological museum by changing its use.

Caesarea Bath

This building is one of the buildings of Qajar period which is located in the main street of the city and the main part of the bath has been repaired and used as a teahouse. The royal platforms around the courtyard have been built for the wealthy in the past. The mortar was made of mortar, but now it has been renovated and covered with white cement. This bathroom has two entrances, one facing the alley behind the bathroom and for women to pass through, and facing Beyhaq Street, it is used for men.

Tomb of Abul Hassan Ali Ibn Zayd Bayhaqi

This monument was built by the National Monuments Association with the plan of Engineer Judet in 1974. Farid al-Din Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Zayd Bayhaqi, known as “Ibn Hazel” is one of the scientists and authors of the sixth century AH. He was born in Bayhaq and in the big cities of that time such as Rey, Neishabour, Sarakhs and Merv, he knelt before a student of science and knowledge until he became a master of literature, hadith, jurisprudence, theology, mathematics, wisdom and medicine. .

Tomb of Hippocrates

Haj Mohammad Hassan Hippocrates was the son of Haj Mohammad Taqi, one of the scholars of his time, and he also wrote poetry and his nickname in his poems was “mortal”. He was born in Sabzevar in 1240 AH and passed away in 1333 at the age of 83. In addition to poetry, he also had a hand in medicine and treated patients with herbal medicines and medical prescriptions. Among his works are the laws of health, the cure of diseases, the thieves of Paris, the dark city and destination, and so on.

The tomb of Hippocrates belongs to the Qajar period and is located in Sabzevar, Kargar Square, next to Meshkati Middle School. This work was registered on August 29, 2002 with the registration number 5909 as one of the national monuments of Iran.

Monument to Mullah Hossein Kashfi

This building was built by the National Works Association with the design of Ahmad Farahbakhsh in 1352, a combination of porches, quadrangles and truncated arches, which is based on three floors. Maulana Kamaluddin Hussein Kashefi, who died in 910 AH, is one of the famous dignitaries of the late Timurid period who spent most of his life in the city of Herat and died there.

Tomb of Haj Mullah Hadi Sabzevari (Secrets)

This building was founded by “Mirza Yusuf Mostofi Al-Mamalik” and after that, the National Works Association took a worthy action to repair and decorate the building in 1340 AH. Haj Mullah Hadi Sabzevari, nicknamed “Asrar”, came to life in Sabzevar in 1212 AH and passed away in 1289 AH. He left valuable works in philosophy, such as the description of the system in logic, the description of Layali, the margin on abstraction, and so on.

Construction of the tomb of Amin Al-Tajjar Mashhadi

The use of architectural components and elements in the building indicates its foundation in the Qajar period. In terms of architecture, this building has a rectangular design and plan, including a small courtyard, two domes with formal decorations and a room. This tomb is the tomb of Amin Al-Tajjar Mashhadi, one of the merchants of Sabzevar city in the Qajar period.

Pilgrimage places of Sabzevar city

Due to the fact that Sabzevar is on the way of pilgrims to the holy city of Mashhad, many pilgrims tend to visit the Imams on this route. Is a city.

Tomb of Imam Zadeh Yahya

This building consists of two entrances that lead to the dome. The oldest part of this tomb is its quadrangular dome and four porches, which was built in the style of architecture of the sixth and seventh centuries AH. Also, the minarets with a height of 29 meters have been annexed to the building in later periods. Among the decorative elements of this work, we can mention brick tiling, mirror work, application, and so on.

This building is located at the intersection of Asrar and Beyhaq streets in Sabzevar. The facade of Beyhaq street is decorated with very exquisite tiles. This place is now respected as a shrine by the people.

Tomb of Imam Zadeh Shoaib (AS)

This sacred threshold includes the courtyard break, the entrance porch, the dome and the cells in the dome of the dome. According to the references to this building, this tomb has existed in Sabzevar at least since the end of the Timurid period, but later it has undergone changes. Mogharnas decorations and mirror work were added to the building in 1305 AH, and its exterior is limited to mosaic tiles and inscriptions by Shiva Shalat. This building is located on the southern edge of Tabarsi Street in Sabzevar.

Building of Prince Abolghasem

The tomb of this Imamzadeh, who is a descendant of Imam Musa to Jafar (AS), is located in the highest heights of the mountains of Sabzevar and Shashtmad called Prince Abolghasem Mountain. There are very beautiful summer areas on the way to this Imamzadeh.

Other holy shrines

The holy tomb of Pirastir, the holy tomb of Azad Monjir in the village of Azad Monjir, the holy tomb of Khosrojerd in the village of Khosrojerd and the holy tomb of Nazlabad in the village of Nazlabad are other holy tombs of this city.

Sabzevar is a historical region with a long culture that has had special rituals, customs and traditions over several thousand years of history and civilization.

Special ceremony on Nowruz

Before Nowruz, the people of Sabzevar welcome spring by moving house, washing clothes and preparing tableware for the week. Nowruz is spoken by the people. The people of Sabzevar consider rice with different stews as Eid dinner.

Rain request ceremony (Choli Choghl, Allah Khoda, Choli Chizak)

The survival of life in the arid and desert areas of the Iranian plateau depends on the amount of rain and rain each year. They decorated themselves with colored cloths and spun in the village or place and whispered poems.

Harvest celebration

Wheat was one of the most important crops in people’s lives. The harvester kept his promise and separated the share of Sadat, the share of Muslims and so on.

Sadeh

In different parts of Sabzevar city, fifty days before Nowruz, the centenary ceremony is held. And they kept rejoicing by the fire until late at night.

Sabzevar city to the center of Sabzevar city is located at a distance of about 250 km from Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan Razavi province.

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