cultural and artisticHeritage and Tourism

The role of Hyrcanian heritage on the sphere of Gilanian art

The Hyrcanian forests, of which Gilan is a part, were registered on July 10, 2019 at the 43rd UNESCO World Heritage Site. This is a world natural heritage. The Hyrcanian Wars, as the second natural heritage of Iran, was registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List according to the 9th criterion number 1584, so that this unique ancient heritage in the name of Iran will remain for the world forever.

The Hyrcanian forests or forests of northern Iran, with a history of 25 to 50 million years of evolution, cover the southern shores of the Caspian Sea like a green belt 850 km long. High rainfall and altitude changes, diversity in ecological conditions from east to west, unparalleled diversity in plant and animal species are prominent features of Hyrcanian forests.

These forests are referred to as the “living fossil” or “natural museum” and the mother of the young forests of Europe and North America; Because the origin and one of the most important sanctuaries in western Eurasia for plant species surviving from the third geological period, rare and endangered plant and animal species and native local, regional and global species are unique.

Although the history of thousands of years of human coexistence indicates a lot of damage to these ancient and unique forests, but on steep and inaccessible slopes and high altitudes, large parts of the Hyrcanian forests undergo their natural evolution and They make us try to protect this precious ancient treasure.

Hyrcanian forests have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as the second natural heritage of Iran on July 5, 2009, at the 43rd UNESCO World Heritage Site in Azerbaijan, Baku. Siahroud Rudbar, Gasht Rudkhan and Lisar protected areas with an area of ​​58 thousand and 534 hectares are located in Gilan province.

An overview of Hyrkan Gilan

Siahrood Rudbar site with an area of ​​27 thousand and 94 hectares, is located 30 km south of Rasht and the natural-national monument of Dorfak Cave is the most important height of Gilan province along with a range of forest and mountain ecosystems. A large part of this site has a slope of more than 40% and its height changes range from 129 to 2706 meters. Around this site in Darband Rashi Cave, one of the oldest dated human settlements in Iran has been identified, which indicates the long-term presence of humans in the Hyrcanian forests.
Patrol Rudkhan with an area of ​​26,556 hectares is located 15 km south of the city of Fooman and the historical site of Qaleh Rudkhan is also located in the area of ​​this site. This mountainous area (site) is accompanied by forest habitats, rangelands, groves and wooded rangelands, a large part of which has a slope of more than 45%. The range of height changes of the area (site) is from 116 to 2839 meters.

This region is one of the wettest areas of Hyrcanian forests with rainfall of more than 1500 mm per year, which covers all the slopes from the plains to the mountains and is one of the most important areas with high biodiversity in Gilan province.

Lisar is the northernmost site of Hyrcanian forests, registered in the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List, with an area of ​​more than 4,884 hectares, located in the political area of ​​Gilan province, 10 km north of Talesh city, due to its valuable wildlife and unique landscapes. And the dense forests of beech, angelica and oak are very important. This is a forested mountainous site and the altitude changes of the region are between 600 and 1800 meters and it has a humid and very humid climate with an average rainfall of 1201 mm.

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There is intense competition and complex consultations for the inclusion of works in the UNESCO World Heritage List; To the extent that many countries lag behind in terms of World Heritage capacity, and some countries are willing to pay a heavy price for this registration; Because the world record of a work reflects the cultural, historical and natural background of that country and in addition to increasing nationalist and identity feelings and proving its roots and the contribution of that nation in the establishment of human history, these works become domestic and international tourism destinations. Which can bring many financial benefits at the national and local levels. There are also very strict laws to protect these works, so much so that any deliberate destruction of the works of a UNESCO World Heritage Site is a war crime.

- The role of Hyrcanian heritage on the sphere of art of Gilanian

Hyrcanian life needs everyone’s help

The head of cultural heritage, tourism and handicrafts of Gilan stated: the preservation and protection of the million-year-old Hyrcanians requires the help of education in the form of art and culture.

But Jahani, who had previously stressed that any intrusion, occupation and construction on the Hyrcanian sites is prohibited, in an interview with IRNA, expressed hope that with the cooperation and sympathy of the people and officials, the field of protection of these ancient forests And provide people with the benefits of global registration.

He stated: On the occasion of Natural Resources Week and Arbor Day, the office of the World Heritage Site of Hyrcanian Forests affiliated to the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts of Guilan Province intends to hold a photo exhibition of World Heritage of Hyrcanian Forests.

He continued: “This exhibition focuses on the vegetation and animals of the Hyrcanian forests, man and nature, the role of local communities and indigenous knowledge in the protection of natural monuments, indigenous architecture, lifestyle and livelihood economy of Hyrcanian forests, threats and factors.” Destruction, waste and waste management, tourism and handicrafts, culture and customs have been designed with the cooperation of nature lovers and photographers in Khatam Al-Anbia Cultural and Artistic Complex (PBUH) in Rasht.

The head of cultural heritage, tourism and handicrafts of Gilan also announced the unveiling of the works of Firoozeh Siddiq Sefat, a creative artist from Gilan, in the field of sustainable fashion and creating an empowering network of local weavers and tailors.

Jahani stated: The works of this artist and his creative group are in the field of using the leading species of Hyrcanian forests, in designing clothes and other home decorations. In addition to the exhibition, handicrafts of ritual dolls and forest by-products will be displayed, as well as training on nature tourism and waste management.

The head of Gilan Cultural Heritage said: “Also, in order to promote the culture of arboriculture and nature protection, the office of the Hyrcanian Forest World Heritage Site affiliated to the General Directorate of Heritage, intends to work with institutions, organizations, grassroots groups, NGOs and supporters.” Nature lovers to participate in the planting of 3,000 saplings in the Hyrcanian forests.

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He added: Planting seedlings on Sunday, March 6 in Talesh city and in the vicinity of Lisar World Heritage Site, on Monday, March 7 in Rudbar city and in the vicinity of Siahrood Rudbar World Heritage Site and on Wednesday, March 9 in Fooman city, Roodkhan World Heritage Site will be held.

Hyrcanians are not just a natural effect

The director of the Hyrcanian World Heritage Site in Gilan province also stated in this regard: The Hyrcanian natural heritage, which includes 12 sites in five provinces of the country with 129 hectares, has three sites in Gilan and has decided to provide conservation training for the survival of the people.

Fariba Babaei stated: “Hyrcanians are not just a natural work. Thousands of years of human evolutionary history are a combination of culture and nature, and we want to emphasize the cultural aspects and branding of products such as medicinal plants and food culture derived from million-year-old Hyrcanians.”

He stated: 300 photos of Gilani photographers have reached the secretariat of the festival for the Hyrcanian photography festival, and the sustainable management of the Hyrcanian longevity needs the cross-sectoral protection of associations, devices and local people.

Babaei said: “There are species in the Hyrcanian forests that may seem to ordinary people only a tree or a plant, while these are fossil species and do not exist anywhere in the world and the only place left is here; It is our duty to show these and to spread environmental culture, so because of the pleasant language of art, we have enlisted the help of designers, photographers, painters and other branches of art to preserve this unique natural heritage.

Among the sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, natural sites have the highest level of protection due to their high vulnerability. Any encroachment or violation of the protection rules on these sites, which leads to the loss of the integrity of the registered sites and threatens its outstanding global values, will lead to the risk of removing these sites from the World Heritage List.

In implementation of the Law of Accession of Iran to the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly in 1974, the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts No. 8367/14002100 has been notified to Gilan Governor’s Office. According to these laws, the scope of the said work is under the supervision of this ministry and any intrusion, seizure and violation of the protection rules is considered a crime and the perpetrators will be subject to legal penalties.

According to these protection criteria, any intrusion, construction, demolition, excavation, embankment, entry of heavy machinery, felling of trees, planting, encroachment on the field and privacy, and in general, any destruction leads to the loss of the integrity of the work And the threat to its outstanding global values ​​is prohibited; And any activity, including tourism in these areas will be possible only with the permission and supervision of the Hyrcanian base office.

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