In the past decades, there have been significant advances in medical science and pharmaceuticals, which greatly contribute to the improvement and development of people’s lifestyles. One of the important things in this regard is the production and development of effective and safe drugs to control and treat high blood pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide is a type of diuretic drug that is used as an important drug in the management of certain health problems. By increasing the excretion of urine from the body, this medicine helps to control blood pressure, treat some cardiovascular diseases and even help to lose weight in people suffering from girism (glucose in the urine).
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Pharmaceutical forms of hydrochlorothiazide
Chemical and herbal medicines available in the market are produced in various pharmaceutical forms based on international standards and classes. These forms include tablets, capsules, serum, ointment, injectable solution, syrup, etc., which the doctor prescribes according to the medical records, physical condition and age of the patient. Hydrochlorothiazide dosage forms include 12.5 mg, 25 mg and 50 mg tablets. Considering the condition of the patient and the type of disease, the doctor will prescribe you different doses of this product so that it has the least side effects along with the maximum benefit.
Uses of hydrochlorothiazide tablets
Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat high blood pressure. This medicine belongs to a class of medicines known as diuretics, which make your body produce more urine. This product also reduces excess fluid in the body (edema) caused by conditions such as heart failure, liver disease, or kidney disease. The most important uses of this pill include edema (abnormal amounts of fluid), blood pressure, high blood pressure in heart failure (off the label), mild fluid retention in heart failure (off the label) and…
Pharmacological effects and mechanism of action of hydrochlorothiazide drug
thiazide diuretic; It inhibits the reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubules of the kidney and thus increases the excretion of water and sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions. The maximum plasma time of hydrochlorothiazide is 1-2.5 hours and its peak effect is 4-6 hours. The limited protein distribution of this drug is 40-68% and its excretion is done through urine.
Dosage of hydrochlorothiazide tablets
Hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be taken by the patient as prescribed by the doctor. This pill is usually prescribed by the doctor once a day depending on the type of disease, if you take this medicine too close to bedtime, you have to bear its side effects, i.e. increased urination. The best time to use it is in the morning or 4 hours before going to sleep so that you don’t have complications and problems. Take the pill as directed by your doctor to get the most out of it. It should be noted that arbitrary and non-prescription consumption can cause serious side effects in you.
Time to take hydrochlorothiazide
The amount and time of taking hydrochlorothiazide tablets in the elderly should be done according to the doctor’s prescription. The use of this product in some elderly people causes an increase in blood pressure, certain side effects, the possibility of electrolyte imbalance in the elderly, control of serum electrolytes, etc. The most common use and prescription of this pill in the elderly is related to diuresis (increased urine secretion). This drug for the treatment of diuresis is 12.5-25 mg per day with the doctor’s prescription, which is titrated in increments of 12.5 mg per day.
Dosage of hydrochlorothiazide tablets in adults
- For the treatment of blood pressure, 50-50 mg once a day is prescribed based on the patient’s condition.
- For the treatment of edema, 25-100 mg once or twice a day, which should not exceed 200 mg a day.
- The recommended dose for high blood pressure in heart failure is 25 mg once or twice a day, with a total dose not exceeding 200 mg.
- For mild fluid retention in heart failure, 25 mg is taken once or twice a day.
Dosage of hydrochlorothiazide tablets in children
- The dosage for the treatment of blood pressure in children less than 6 months is 1-3 mg every 12 hours, in children 6 months to 2 years 1-2 mg daily, children 2-12 years 1-3 mg per day.
- The dosage for edema disease in children less than 6 months is 1-3 mg every 12 hours, children 6 months to 2 years 1-3 mg daily and children 2-12 years 1-3 mg per day.
- Note that these amounts are for general use of this product and consult a doctor for accurate treatment.
Before taking hydrochlorothiazide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it. This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as sulfites in some brands) that can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Before taking the medicine, inform the doctor of your medical history such as diabetes, gout, kidney disease, liver disease, lupus, skin cancer, etc. Excessive sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting can increase the risk of dehydration. In case of prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, stop taking the medicine and inform the doctor.
- Use with caution in diabetes mellitus, fluid or electrolyte imbalance, blood cholesterol, hyperuricemia or gout, hypercalcemia, hypotension, systemic lupus erythematosus, liver or kidney disease, hypokalemia, parathyroid disease.
- This drug may exacerbate digitalis toxicity.
- Allergic reactions may occur with or without a history of allergy or asthma in the patient.
- Avoid concomitant use of lithium (reduction of lithium dose by 50% may be necessary).
- The use of this pill will increase the risk of male sexual dysfunction.
- Acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma have been reported. This problem is more common in people with a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy (hydrochlorothiazide is a sulfonamide).
- Teach patients to protect their skin from the sun and to undergo regular skin cancer screening. Because this product has caused light sensitivity in some patients.
- In some patients, electrolyte disturbances (such as hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis) may occur.
Hydrochlorothiazide may affect your blood sugar if you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar regularly as directed by your doctor. Your doctor may need to adjust your diabetes medication, exercise program, or diet. At the time of use, you may need to consult your doctor about potassium-containing foods (such as bananas, orange juice) or the use of potassium-containing salt substitutes.
- Documented hypersensitivity to hydrochlorothiazide or sulfonamides
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding (only by doctor’s prescription)
- Inability to urinate
- Liver and kidney diseases
Hydrochlorothiazide side effects
Stomach upset, dizziness and headache are some of the important side effects of hydrochlorothiazide tablets. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist right away. In case of dizziness and headache, avoid doing heavy work, working with machines and driving. Most people who use this drug do not experience serious side effects. However, in case of serious side effects such as reduced vision, eye pain, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, muscle cramps, weakness, slow or fast heartbeat, etc., stop taking the medicine and consult a doctor.
- Confusion and dizziness
- Fatigue and headache
- Lack of body nutrients (hypercalcemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia)
- Muscle weakness or cramps
- high blood pressure
- Dizziness and vomiting
Hydrochlorothiazide drug interactions
Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk of serious side effects. Make a list of the chemical and herbal medicines you use and show it to your doctor when you see him. Do not start, stop, or change any medication without your doctor’s approval. Duphtilide and lithium drugs cause drug interactions with hydrochlorothiazide. If you use anti-cough and cold products, NSAID drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen, etc., consult your doctor.
Use of hydrochlorothiazide (hydrochlorothiazide) during pregnancy and breastfeeding
During pregnancy or breastfeeding, the use of all pills should be controlled by a doctor. Using any medicine directly affects your fetus or baby and will cause side effects and serious problems. For this reason, pregnant women and nursing mothers should not take hydrochlorothiazide without a doctor’s prescription. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
Hydrochlorothiazide storage conditions
Hydrochlorothiazide should be stored at room temperature away from light and moisture. Keep all chemical and herbal medicines out of the reach of children and animals. Dispose of this product properly when it has expired or is no longer needed. Avoid pouring all kinds of medicines into wells, streets and sewers.
A final word about hydrochlorothiazide tablets
If the doctor has prescribed this product for you to treat high blood pressure, you should be aware of its side effects and precautions. From this article from Positive Green Online Pharmacy magazine, it can be concluded that hydrochlorothiazide has been approved as an effective and efficient diuretic in the management of some health problems. Finally, the use of any drug, including hydrochlorothiazide tablets, should be determined based on the individual’s needs and the doctor’s recommendations. People should have complete information about this drug and its uses in order to benefit from its benefits in the best way and avoid possible risks.
Site source: Medscape