The set of value-added activities that is not defined in the framework of the formal economy and is hidden from the national accounts and the tax system of the country, is the underground economy. An important part of the underground economy is in the context of illegal activities, smuggling, theft, fraud, drugs and the like.
Interestingly, money laundering is usually seen as a crime without victimization and without destructive effects, however, many consequences can be considered for the offense that theft, murder and other criminal offenses are consequences that aggravate money laundering. It becomes.
Interestingly, in the absence of public awareness, many people become involved in money laundering activities; Here one can seriously criticize education, universities, radio and television, and the media for failing to provide accurate and comprehensive information on money laundering.
The point to be noted is that money laundering is a secondary crime and occurs after the commission of the main crime; On the other hand, studies show that money laundering is in most cases an organized crime and is committed by a group of individuals.
On the other hand, these organizations usually launder money by taking advantage of people who have a high financial reputation. In fact, since these accounts are not suspicious, they are hidden from the monitoring and refinement of monitoring teams.
The three stages of money laundering
In the first stage, the proceeds of criminal activities are injected into the official financial network. The purpose of this stage is to convert the income from cash into financial instruments and assets, usually by depositing in banks and financial institutions, buying cryptocurrencies, buying works of art, buying Precious metals, precious stones and some other goods are bought.
Next, proceeds from criminal activity are segregated through the creation of complex layers of transactions and multiple transfers. This step is done with the aim of obscuring the audit process and keeping the identity of the main parties anonymous.
In the last stage, legitimate cover-up and legal justification for the proceeds of criminal activities occurs, and in practice, the proceeds of these activities enter the mainstream of the country’s economy.
Money laundering in Iran
In Iran, as in other countries, individuals and some organizations are engaged in money laundering on a large scale and using various methods.
Iran has special geographical and economic conditions. On the one hand, Western sanctions on the country have created a situation where we are witnessing a huge flood of smuggled goods into the country, and on the other hand, the existence of hidden subsidies in various fields provides a good opportunity for smuggling from Iran to other countries. has done.
Neighborhood with Afghanistan as one of the centers of drug production has created complicated conditions for the country and the growing number of gambling and betting sites has also imposed difficult conditions on the country. Sites run by expatriates and looting Iranian capital.
On the other hand, the current led by the United States, Israel and some European countries in the form of institutions (manufacturing, services and charities inside Iran) have created a new way of money laundering for sabotage and espionage, it is interesting that many people in these collections They have no information about it, although the secret relationship of the managers of these units with foreign services can not be ignored.
It is interesting to note that some people are cooperating with the offenders due to lack of awareness; To be more precise, the violators use the accounts of ordinary people because of their financial cleansing.
Bank account rental is a clear example of money laundering
Bank accounts are misused in the form of rental accounts or corporate posts. In fact, some people give away all their bank account information in exchange for money.
Also, in some organizations, delinquent managers receive the account numbers of the people under their management with various and deceptive promises, and by using these accounts, they can easily bring the proceeds of their illegal actions into the country’s economic flow.
Interestingly, giving the account to another person is illegal and this must be done by exchanging official documents and in certain circumstances.
In fact, a bank account is like a personal car; So that in case of any violation, the final responsibility belongs to the account holder; Although the law is based on Islamic etiquette and only prohibits the offender from certain activities, such as banking, for a certain period of time, if the law deals severely, those who provide their bank accounts to others They will also face crimes such as imprisonment.
Law enforcement is the key to fighting money laundering
The most important pillar in the fight against money laundering is the implementation of the law, and fortunately, the anti-money laundering law has been passed in the country, but despite the passage of this law, it has not been implemented to date.
For example, banks are known as one of the main organs of the country in the fight against and identify money laundering, and in order for the money laundering process to be monitored by various institutions, these institutions must receive the job information and identity of each person when opening an account.
Strictly speaking, a young child or a simple employee or a rural old woman will not have a high turnover in practice, and if a high turnover is observed, it can be said that a violation is taking place. Like the case of an elderly man importing luxury cars, which in practice turned out to be exploited by other people out of poverty and ignorance.
In fact, identity and job information is received by banks for this purpose; However, many banks in the country ignore these instructions. On the other hand, if a bank seeks to implement this instruction, because the bank employee is not properly justified, it will cause a conflict with the bank customer.
The story of the conflict between one of the famous singers of the country and Bank Mellat was an example of this lack of justification of the employee in receiving job information. میکرد.
The need to pay attention to cryptocurrencies
On the other hand, cryptocurrencies are known as one of the main methods for illegal activities and unofficial information indicates a daily turnover of 10 thousand billion Tomans in the Iranian market.
It is strange that to date, no law has been announced to organize the Ramzarz area, and due to this lack of attention, several exchange offices are formed daily in the crypto market in the country.
On the other hand, the Metavers field is also in development, and this field, like digital currencies, has been neglected in the government and parliament, with these interpretations, the violators will move to money laundering to buy and sell Ramzars and Metavers lands.
The next issue is the strict implementation of the money laundering law in Iran by the Central Bank. According to the law, all financial institutions and Qarz al-Hasna must obtain a license from the Central Bank, and to date no such procedure has been observed.
Despite the fact that 99% of the Qarz al-Hasna institutions in the country are operating in perfect cleanliness and observance of the law, but there were also a small number of these institutions whose board members are using these institutions to clean up their dirty money and implement The law in this regard can reduce the dissent of these people.
What has been said is only a small part of the money laundering practices in the country Abuse of charities And a small number of art auctions are other common methods that have not yet been thoroughly studied by the relevant institutions in the country, and we hope that in the thirteenth government, the esteemed president has always emphasized the serious fight against economic corruption and the elimination of corruption. ; Relevant institutions should pay serious attention to the fight against money laundering and its examples and tools.