None of the nomads of Iran have perfected the art of jewelry making as much as the Turkmen, and the women artists of this people have been trying for more than 2,000 years to spin the wheel of this handicraft, but its survival, according to activists, requires special support and training. has it.
According to experts, Turkmen or Turkmen is the ethnic name of Turks in Central Asia.
The main place of silence for the Turkmen is Turkmenistan, but in Iran they mostly live in the southeast of the Caspian Sea and the Turkmen Sahara and around the Atrak and Gorgan rivers.
In terms of province, Turkmen settlements in Golestan provinces are mostly in the northern part, Khorasan Razavi, villages in the northern border strip of the province and North Khorasan, Raz and Jorglan area of Bojnourd city and important Turkmen cities in Iran can be “Maraveh Tappeh and Incheh Borun”
Handicrafts, like other Iranian ethnic groups, is one of the attractions of the Turkmen people, which can be divided into three categories: livestock, wood and metal products. Women’s clothing is used.
Turkmen clothing and jewelry is a manifestation of the knowledge of the life of the Turkmen people, and given the nomadic nature of this people, this type of life has undoubtedly played a special role in the current development of clothing and jewelry designs for men and women.
The peak of the art of making jewelry among the Turkmen people
In a book compiled by Maryam Aziz Moradi entitled “Red Circle” on the subject of Turkmen jewelry, it is mentioned that none of the nomads of Iran perfected the art of jewelry making as much as the Turkmen, and Turkmen women from their childhood to Gold jewelry is embellished with embossed or lattice motifs, embellished with semi-precious turquoise and stained glass to imitate gold jewelry and studs, and in these ornaments, gold seems to prevail, but the main material is silver.
Turkmen jewelry can be found in the sections “Traditional half-crowns, temples, headbands, wigs, bracelets, earrings, decorative hooks (necklaces), rings, dress plates, hats, Quranic frames, charms, pendants “Baby clothes, baby wristbands and belts.”
The motifs used in Turkmen jewelry are mainly derived from plant, animal designs and geometric and abstract images, and often these motifs have a meaningful meaning, and some motifs, such as the eight-pointed star, are visible because the Turkmen woman marks the eight-pointed star. Iqbal knows or geometric shapes such as circles and triangles, squares and rectangles, each of which is a symbol of the world around them.
Golestan has 25,000 artists active in the field of handicrafts, 176 of whom are specialized in the field of jewelry production in 9 cities of the province. , Does not have the prosperity of the past and needs the support of the authorities in discussing the payment of facilities to preserve this art of the industry and pass it on to the next generations.
The beauty of Turkmen women’s clothing with jewelry
Islam Bardi Aq, a Turkmen jewelry master with more than 40 years of experience, told IRNA: “This type of jewelry is based on silver and a small amount of gold using colored jewels, which in the past were precious stones, and this The days are made of opal and glass.
He said: “The main customers of traditional jewelry are from the Turkmen people who use them in various celebrations and ceremonies, and one of the beauties of the wedding celebrations of this people is covering their heads, faces and clothes with traditional jewelry in different designs and sizes.”
The artist added: “Until a few years ago, Turkmen jewelry had a very good market and in addition to the people of the region, people from Turkmenistan also came to us to order work, but these days, economic problems along with the young generation’s interest in using gold-style jewelry Today, this art of industry has slowed down.
Aq, who in the past used several students to make orders but now works alone, called on provincial officials to support the masters of the profession by providing low-cost facilities to revitalize the art.
Fatemeh Javanbakht, another activist in this profession, said in an interview with IRNA: “Turkmen jewelry is one of the oldest and indigenous jewelry in the region, and the role and design of each piece, in addition to the beauty and beauty that it covers, has a great meaning and It is a symbol of the surrounding environment.
He emphasized: “The activists of this profession try to keep it alive and many old masters of traditional Turkmen jewelry such as” Ghulam Aq “are not alive and he wants to appreciate the living artists of this field in this situation and to preserve this art for future generations.” He supported them.
Considering the activity of online sales sites and bazaars effective, the artist asked the officials in their meetings and conferences to choose the type of gift from among the handicrafts, including jewelry made by the artists, to introduce both the handicrafts of the region and to support their creators. Be.
Javan Bakht continued: “In the last few years, with the cultural developments that have taken place, people look at handicrafts better than before, and it is necessary to set up training courses to lead activists in various fields to make their products more practical in order to maintain this market.”
Turkmen jewelry crystallization of Golestan people
The head of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts of Golestan, referring to the valuable place of Turkmen jewelry in the crystallization of creativity and art of the people of the province, said: This institution seeks to nationally register one of the active cities in the field of Turkmen jewelry.
Rahman Farmani stated: The artists of this field preserve the concepts and cultural identity of the people of the region by creating their works and pass them on to the next generations.
He informed about the activity of 176 artists in the field of jewelry production in 9 cities of the province and said: “We are looking to register one of the cities with more active and well-known artists as the national city of Turkmen jewelry.”
Farmani continued: Artists in this field can use the facilities provided in the field of home business, Note 18 and the location of the National Development Fund according to the amount of work they do.
According to IRNA, Golestan, despite its unique landscapes, dreamy landscapes and historical background, always welcomes many domestic and foreign tourists. ), Mazandaranians, Baluchis and Cossacks are more diverse than other parts of the country, so that it entertains every traveler and tourist.
Handmade carpets, felt, Turkmen ornaments and needlework, Jajim weaving of Ziarat village of Gorgan, silk weaving of Ramyan and Minoodasht trout, Shahkooh and Baluch folk needlework and traditional clothing stitching are among the handicrafts of tribes living in Golestan, which are made by women and girls. The men of this province each have their own name and reputation among domestic and foreign buyers.
According to IRNA, 25,000 Golestan handicraft artists work in more than 80 indigenous and non-indigenous fields, including hand-woven carpets, silk weaving, felt weaving, local tribal clothing, Turkmen ornaments, mat weaving, Turkmen needlework and jajim weaving.