Fars News Agency Urban Group:According to the Air Quality Control Company Since the beginning of the year, Tehran has had two days of clean air, 155 days of acceptable air, 35 days of unhealthy air for sensitive people and one day of unhealthy air for all people. Acceptable weather day, 41 days of unhealthy weather for sensitive people in the community and 2 days of unhealthy weather for all people.
According to the Air Quality Control Company, the Tehran Air Quality Index is currently at 97 and the air quality in the capital is acceptable. Sensitive society was unhealthy.
Air pollution occurs when large volumes of harmful particles or substances such as gases, particles and biomolecules enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Air pollution is a mixture of suspended particles and gases whose concentration has reached a range harmful to humans, which can be both inside and outside the building. Indoor air pollution is caused by burning fuel sources. Outdoor air pollution is also contributing to several of the world’s leading causes of death, including stroke, heart disease, lung cancer and respiratory diseases, such as asthma.
About various issues such as air pollution in the capital in the first days of autumn, ozone pollution, corona and air pollution, the role of public transport in reducing air pollution, the condition of air quality control devices, noise pollution in the capital and the use of specialized personnel in Air quality control company with Hossein Shahidzadeh, CEO of Tehran Air Quality Control Company We had a discussion, the details of which are as follows.
The cause of pollution in the first days of autumn this year
During the first days of autumn, Tehran has witnessed an increase in air pollution, while schools have not been reopened in person and traffic has not reached the city level before the corona conditions. What was the cause of this air pollution?
The air pollution that was created from the beginning of autumn was not premature. We had witnessed such pollution in previous years. Of course, the pollution of previous years was due to the change in traffic patterns due to the reopening of schools and universities. It was in the first days of autumn. The dust entered Tehran from the west for hours and this pollution was caused by suspended particles below 10 microns, which is larger than smaller particles (pm2.5) and is not considered man-made because the earth is dry and the wind blows at a suitable speed. Will cause it.
Also, in the first half of this year, the number of rainy days was less than last year, and for this reason, it was observed that with more drought, the number of unfavorable days in terms of suspended particles caused by dust was more than last year. And creating special conditions in terms of meteorological parameters as well as traffic in the city, the number of polluted days due to vehicle pollutants will increase, and citizens need to pay attention to issues such as technical inspection of their vehicles and also less use of vehicles. ورزند.
Dust pollution is trapped by the body’s defense system / index exceeds 150. Pollution is harmful to everyone
Is there a higher risk of dust pollution or finer particles?
However, larger particles can not reach the depths of the human lungs and trap their immune system. Of course, when we turn the rate of pollution into an index, it means that we have nothing to do with its concentration, and when the index exceeds 100, sensitive individuals and groups in society, such as people with cardiovascular disease, their health is endangered, and when the index exceeds 150, pollution It is harmful for everyone.
As the air cools, ozone pollution decreases / Dust reduces ozone concentration
What is the current situation of ozone pollution in the capital?
Fortunately, as the weather cools, ozone emissions are reduced as sunlight is reduced and we no longer see ozone emissions in the capital. Ozone is a secondary pollutant and is not produced directly, and when Knox and volatile organic compounds react with each other in strong sunlight, they produce ozone. On the other hand, when it is dusty, ozone reacts with it and its concentration decreases very quickly.
However, in general, when comparing winter and summer air pollution, except for dust, it should be noted that winter air pollution is related to suspended particles less than 2.5 microns, and when these particles enter the body’s arteries through the respiratory tract, they move throughout the body. Will and can affect the brain, heart and all organs of the body. As a result, the variety of problems created in humans caused by suspended particles is enormous.
But air pollution in summer is related to ozone, which only affects the human respiratory system, but the suspended particles caused by winter air pollution even affect the fetus.
The main culprit of air pollution in Tehran
Also, every year in the cold seasons, the amount of air pollution in the capital increases and in the general classification, the main culprit of Tehran’s air pollution is transportation, but focusing on mobile sources does not mean forgetting the fixed sources of air pollution in Tehran. Outside the city, such as industries, power plants and refineries around the capital, also have a significant share in the production of air pollution in Tehran. Therefore, in order to deal with air pollution, different devices should have the necessary cooperation in cooperation with each other, and in addition to citizens, officials can reduce this problem by constantly paying attention to reducing air pollution and taking measures such as increasing fuel quality of power plants in cold seasons. To help.
How much fuel oil is the cause of air pollution?
You see, I have said many times that it is better not to limit the polluted fuel of power plants to fuel oil, because sulfur fuel is a more appropriate term. In many neighborhoods around Tehran, they may not use fuel oil and burn diesel, but this diesel is not less polluting than diesel.
Increased pollution is caused by reducing the implementation time of the traffic plan / the effect of particulate matter on human health in the long run
What has changed with the amount of air pollution with the reduction of traffic plan hours in the capital?
Due to the prevalence of corona, the traffic hours in the capital were reduced and it should be noted that the effect of particulate matter and air pollution on human health in the long run and the effect of corona on human health at the same time and we have practically accepted Air pollution has less consequences than Corona at the moment, so the implementation of the traffic plan was done in less hours, and this means traffic permits for more vehicles and, of course, air pollution.
The municipality is not responsible for reducing air pollution
How successful is Tehran Municipality in combating air pollution and what measures can the new city management take to deal with this problem and solve it?
You see, the municipality is not responsible for reducing air pollution, and out of more than 60 instructions to deal with air pollution, only three of the instructions are related to the Ministry of Interior and municipalities. There is no doubt that the development of public transport is effective in reducing air pollution, and the attention of the municipality and the city council in this regard can be very important. The reason for the government’s support was better, with about 82.5 percent of the budget needed to renovate the bus being paid by the government and the rest by the municipality. But this has not been the case for many years and we hope that in the current government, with the cooperation of Tehran Municipality, the public transport fleet will have good developments. Of course, this is also the case in most countries of the world and the central government helps to develop public transport.
Every year, 5,000 premature deaths occur in Tehran due to air pollution
How many people die every year in Tehran due to air pollution?
According to the reports prepared by the World Bank and agreed upon by the relevant experts, 5,000 premature deaths occur annually in Tehran due to air pollution, which if we compare it with the plane crash, we can say that it is equivalent to the annual crash of 50 planes, ie once a week. Airplanes, we have deaths due to air pollution. The World Health Organization has issued recommendations on the permissible limits of air pollutants that our country is far from international law.
How do you assess the autumn situation in terms of pollution?
One of the factors aggravating air pollution is dust due to lack of rain, which rises from dry lands and enters
Cities will also be If we do not reduce the production of air pollutants this year, we will definitely experience more polluted days this fall
In order to equip a station, about 5 billion tomans of credit is needed
What is the condition of the air quality control company’s devices?
In the air control company, we have tried to maintain the equipment well. Some spare parts have already been purchased and are in use, but now we are facing many difficulties in supplying new devices. To equip a station, about 5 billion tomans of credit is needed, and each station of the air quality control company measures 5 different pollutants, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide and suspended particles, all of which require special devices. To itself.
What is the accuracy of air pollution measuring devices?
Shahidzadeh: There is no doubt in the accuracy of measuring air pollution measuring devices, we have improved the quality of data for several years. Calibration of devices and testing has been done with reference laboratories and timely maintenance of devices has always been considered.
Benefit from specialized personnel in the air quality control company / cooperation of universities with the municipality
How many specialized personnel are used in the air quality control company?
It is very important to have specialized personnel in any organization. We have tried to use experienced and trained personnel. In terms of expertise, the forces in the air quality control company are at a good level, but we still need to use more specialized forces. Of course, in cases where we have had problems in this area, we have received help from universities as a project, for example, we have benefited from the use of satellite images from universities.
Tehran noise pollution above the allowable limit / resolutions to deal with noise pollution in the capital
Tehran is one of the most polluted metropolises in the world in terms of noise pollution. How do you assess the latest situation of noise pollution in the capital?
In all the past years, Tehran’s noise pollution has been higher than allowed. Tehran is a noisy city and many factors such as motorcycle traffic, construction, construction activities and some businesses such as refinement are associated with noise production, but It should be noted that noise pollution is not like air pollution that goes from one point to another, for example, sound insulation can be used to deal with noise pollution. We have had resolutions in the city council and, God willing, they should be implemented, for example, for electric motors (ground motors). It is also a kind of technical inspection for fixed ground motors and their air pollution control.
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