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Cause, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease

You may have seen on many medicines or food and bodybuilding supplements that this medicine is not suitable for celiac patients. If you have a question about what celiac disease is, stay with us in this article. Do you know that 10% of Iranians have celiac disease?

What is celiac disease?

Celiac disease is a digestive disorder caused by an abnormal immune response to gluten. Some other names for celiac disease include sprue, non-tropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Gluten is a protein found in foods made from wheat, barley, rye and oats. Gluten may even be present in some medicines, vitamins and cosmetics such as lipstick. Gluten intolerance, also known as gluten-related disorders, is associated with symptoms that occur after eating foods containing this substance.

Be careful that gluten sensitivity is different from celiac disease. People who are allergic to gluten may experience mild symptoms. But celiac is considered an autoimmune disorder. In celiac disease, the immune response to gluten produces toxins that destroy the intestinal villi. The villi are finger-like protrusions inside the small intestine, and if they are damaged, the body will no longer be able to absorb nutrients from food. In this case, the person suffers from malnutrition and permanent damage to his intestines may occur. People with celiac disease should eliminate all forms of gluten from their diet. They may not even be able to eat all kinds of bread. Also, gluten is used as a stabilizer in some foods. If you have celiac disease, you should also be careful with these types of foods.


Celiac symptoms

The symptoms of celiac disease mainly involve the intestines and digestive system. But it can also leave a negative impact on other parts of the body. The symptoms of this disease are different in children and adults:

Celiac symptoms in children

Children with celiac disease may feel tired and irritable. Also, they may be smaller than their peers and their maturity is delayed. Other symptoms include:

  • Weight Loss
  • Vomit
  • Bloating and abdominal pain
  • Persistent diarrhea or constipation
  • Pale, greasy and foul-smelling stools

Celiac symptoms in adults

Adults with celiac disease may experience gastrointestinal symptoms. Of course, in most cases, other areas of the body will also be affected. Symptoms may include:

  • iron deficiency anemia
  • Joint pain and stiffness
  • Weak and brittle bones
  • tiredness
  • convulsions
  • Skin disorders
  • Numbness and tingling in hands and feet
  • Discoloration or loss of tooth enamel
  • Pale sores inside the mouth
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Infertility and abortion

Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is another common symptom in celiac disease. This disease is accompanied by skin rashes and severe itching and may lead to blisters. The resulting rash may appear on the elbows, buttocks, or knees. DH affects approximately 15 to 25 percent of people with celiac disease. Those who experience DH often have no gastrointestinal symptoms.

Celiac symptoms vary from person to person depending on a number of factors. These factors include:

  • The length of time a person feeds on mother’s milk during infancy.
  • The age of starting to consume gluten-containing foods
  • The amount of gluten consumed.
  • Severity of intestinal damage

Be careful that some people with celiac disease may not have any symptoms, but they may experience long-term complications. If you suspect that you or your child may have celiac disease, be sure to see your doctor. The longer the diagnosis and treatment is delayed, the more likely complications will occur.

Which people are more likely to develop celiac disease?

Celiac disease can be hereditary. If your parents or siblings have celiac disease, you may have it yourself. People who have other autoimmune diseases and some genetic disorders are also more susceptible to celiac disease. Some of the conditions associated with celiac disease include:

  • Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, thyroid disease, autoimmune liver disease, Addison’s disease, Sjögren’s syndrome, Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, lactose intolerance, intestinal cancer and intestinal lymphoma.

Gluten-free foods for people with celiac disease

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Celiac test

Celiac disease is diagnosed by physical examination and medical history. Doctors usually use tests to help confirm their correct diagnosis. People with celiac disease often have high levels of anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTGA) antibodies. These cases can be diagnosed with a blood test. A person should take these tests while still using gluten in their diet.

Blood tests used to diagnose celiac disease include:

  • complete blood count (CBC)
  • Liver function tests
  • Cholesterol test
  • Alkaline phosphatase level test
  • Serum albumin test

In people with DH, a skin biopsy can also help doctors diagnose celiac disease. Sometimes upper endoscopy is used to diagnose this disease. The doctor can also use an intestinal biopsy for further investigations.

Complications of celiac disease

If celiac disease is not treated, it can lead to other autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS), etc. Anemia, osteoporosis, infertility, abortion, neurological diseases such as epilepsy, migraine, etc. are also other complications of untreated celiac disease.

Is celiac disease fatal?

People who do not treat celiac disease or do not respond well to treatment may live less than they should due to the complications of this disease. However, celiac disease is rarely fatal. When celiac disease is diagnosed, most people will do well by avoiding gluten and will have no further problems.

Treatment of celiac disease

The only way to cure celiac disease is to permanently eliminate gluten from the diet. In this case, the intestinal villi recover and begin to absorb nutrients. The doctor will teach the affected person how to maintain a healthy diet while avoiding foods containing gluten. Symptoms of celiac disease may improve just a few days after eliminating gluten from the diet. Be careful that when you take the celiac test, gluten should not be removed from your diet, because in this case the test results can mislead the doctor.

Dietary warnings for patients with celiac disease

Maintaining a gluten-free diet is not easy. But fortunately, many companies now launch gluten-free products. So be sure to read food labels. If it is written on the packaging of the product, gluten free, it will be safe for people with celiac disease. Celiac patients should avoid the following ingredients in food:

  • Wheat, rye, barley, triticale, semolina, durum wheat, farina, graham flour and semolina flour.

The following foods should also be avoided; Unless they have a “gluten-free” label:

  • Bread, cakes, candies, cereals, biscuits, sauces, oats, pasta, processed meats, sausages, etc.

These gluten-free grains can be consumed:

  • Buckwheat, corn, corn flour, flour made from rice, soy, corn, potatoes or beans, rice and tapioca.

Healthy and nutritious gluten-free foods include:

  • Fresh meat, fish and chicken
  • Fruits
  • Most dairy products
  • Starchy vegetables such as peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes and corn
  • Rice, beans and lentils
  • the vegetables

Celiac symptoms should resolve within a few days or weeks after dietary modifications are made. In children, the intestine usually recovers within 3 to 6 months. But full recovery of the intestine in adults may take several months. When the gut is fully healed, the body can absorb nutrients properly.

final word

Celiac disease is a digestive disorder. This disease improves when all foods containing gluten are removed from the diet. Celiac symptoms in children and adults can be different, and in this article we examined each of them separately. If you think you may have this disease, be sure to see a doctor as soon as possible. The later the treatment is done, the more complications will threaten the health of the body.

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